History of Pandemics

symbol of death
Unknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

This is a list of the largest known history of pandemic (including pandemics) caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. 

An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic. 

Before we talk about the History of Pandemics epidemics, do you know how many types of epidemics are? If not, find out Types of Epidemic.

What's the meaning of Pandemic

Pandemic Chart
Pandemic Chart

Extensive pandemic disease, with a stable number of infected people, such as seasonal influenza recurrence, is generally excluded, as it occurs simultaneously in large areas of the world rather than spreading worldwide. Now let's take look at the history of the pandemics list.

1. Years: - 1620, Disease: - Flu, Country: - New England

Flu Virus
Photo Credit: Cynthia GoldsmithContent Providers(s): CDC/ Dr. Terrence Tumpey, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


In the History of Pandemics, the 1st pandemics is the flu. America was not a United Nations like it was then. At that time England was operating in the United States. It was for the first time that slaves were flown from Europe to New England (America). With that came an epidemic.

It was not a communication or world tour like today. So the epidemic that started from one place did not spread all over the world overnight. New England was in full swing from 1616 to 1622. 

It was not possible to get perfect statistical information like today. Because even in the world of what happens in New England (America), England didn't even know who occupied it! So there were no studies. But years later, researchers began examining the history of the epidemic. 

1620 was the time when there was a first-time flu. Governor William Bradford wrote that half of the sailors on the Mayflower were killed by a mysterious fever, the first ship of settlers to land on the coast of New England. 

After examining many such notes and other documents, researchers came to the conclusion that the death toll from the epidemic in New England alone was between 21 and 24 thousand. The inhabitants of America were then known as Red Indians. So this epidemic is also known as the 'Indian epidemic'.

2. Years: - 1720, Disease: - Plague, Country: - France

Plague
Michiel Sweerts, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Now the second number of History of Pandemics is the Plague. Plague is divided into three main types - bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague - depending on which part of your body is involved. Signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of plague.

Holland Paintings Gift of The Ahmanson Foundation AC1997.10.1) European Painting Currently on public view: Ahmanson Building, floor 3 The painting is believed to be referring to the plague of Athens or have elements from it (i.e. as per Plague in an Ancient City, by Michael Sweerts, circa 1652, represents the Plague of Athens, Thucicydes and the Plague of Athens),

The plague epidemic is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, commonly found in small mammals and their fleas. The disease is transmitted between animals by their fleas and, because it is a zoonotic bacteriome, it can also be transmitted from animals to humans.

Humans can be infected by the bite of an infected flea, by direct contact with infected material, or by inhalation. Plague can be a very serious disease in people, especially in its septic and pneumonic forms, with a 30% -100% case-death rate if left untreated.

Although the plague is responsible for a widespread epidemic in history, including the so-called Black Death, which killed more than 50 million people in Europe during the fourteenth century, today it can be easily used with antibiotics and standard preventive measures.

The place is found on all continents except Oceania but most human cases have occurred in Africa since the 1990s. The Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, and Peru are the three most localized countries.

I just mentioned the flu in the United States in 1620, when the United States was yet to be free from the flu, during which time another deadliest plague of the same disease began in other countries.

During the period from 1614 to 1621, the plague spread to countries. These countries were places to be noted. There were also thousands of countries without note. But where the highest number of deaths occurred was in Algeria, the highest number of deaths in the African country.

Amsterdam, a city in the Netherlands, has killed eight and a half thousand people. A few years later, in 1629, more than two and a half million people died of the plague outbreak in Italy.

The epidemic came by ship in the city of Marseille; yes the disease came by ship. (But if you are wondering what all the disease must have been by the ship? So there is no evidence of all the disease, but the plague and the flu are believed to have come from the sea by ship.

The passengers of this ship were plague victims. The ship was parked on the shore and separated. The mayor of Marseille city aboard the ship was killed by a plague. When the ship was brought to shore to unload the human’s dead body, several rats carrying the plague virus went into the city.

Shortly after, there was a pile of garbage in the garbage warehouse in the cities; similarly, there was a pile of dead bodies on the city street. The 27-kilometer-long wall, called the Plague Wall, was built to prevent the Marseille plague from spreading. Tourists visiting Marseille can still see the wall if they wish. By the time the plague was abolished in 1722, hundreds of millions had been killed. After the second number history of pandemics, you know more pandemic history.

3. Years: - 1981, Disease: - AIDS, Country: - USA

Red Ribbon of Aids
Gary van der MerweCC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons
The 3rd History of Pandemics is AIDS. The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Five cases of AIDS were first reported clinically in the United States on June 5, 1981. In the early cases, there was a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no cause for impaired immunity, who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection seen in people with compromised immune systems.

Shortly thereafter, an unexpected number of homosexual men developed rare skin cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma. Some cases of PCP and KS were encountered, which led to the US Department of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Centers were alerted and a CDC task force was formed to monitor the outbreak.

In the early days, the CDC had no official name for the disease, often referring to it in terms of diseases associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, a disease after which HIV detectives originally named the virus the word grid. Meaning, which means that related immune deficiency, coins were made.

However, after determining that AIDS was not isolated to the gay community it was understood that the term GRID was misleading, and the term AIDS was introduced in a July 1982 meeting. By September 1982, the CDC began treating the disease as AIDS.

Two separate research groups, led by Robert Gallo and Luke Montagnier, announced that retrovirus could infect people with AIDS, and published their findings in the same issue of the Science Journal.

Gallo virus which was isolated from a person in their group was surprisingly similar to AIDS, claiming that the shape was the first to differentiate other human T lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) that belong to their group. Gallo's group called their new isolation virus HTLV-III.

At the same time, Montagnier's group isolated the virus from the person present with two typical symptoms of AIDS, lymph nodes of the throat, and swelling in the physical weakness.

Contrary to the report of Gallo's group, Montagnier and colleagues showed that the virus's original protein was immunologically different from HTLV-1. The group from Montagnier has named their separate virus related to lymphadenopathy (LAV).

Both of these viruses became similar, in 1986, the LAV and HTLV-3 were renamed to HIV. of the 1980s. April 24, San Francisco resident Ken Horne reports to the Center for Disease Control with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Later in 1981, the CDC granted them the U.S. Responded as the first patient in the AIDS epidemic.

He was also suffering from Cryptococcus.HIV transmission in India was first seen in 1986 in Chennai, among women sex workers. Today, with an estimated 5.134 million infections, India was the second-largest population living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) at that time. This article suggests the status of the epidemic in India, the major contributing factors, and the changes that should be taken to manage the epidemic.

HIV (Human immunodeficiency viruses) Origin:

Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte. Multiple round bumps on the cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in human primates monkeys in West-Central Africa and subsequently migrated to humans in the early 20th century. There is evidence that humans who engage in bushmeat activities, as hunters or bushmeat vendors, are generally exposed to SIV. 

Although SIV is a debilitating virus that is usually suppressed by the human immune system within weeks of infection. It is believed that many transitions are needed for rapid stimulation from person to person, in order to allow enough time for HIV to be transformed. In addition, due to its relatively low person-to-person transmission rate, HIV is only spread throughout the population in the presence of one or more high-risk transmission channels, which is thought to be absent in Africa before the 20th century.

4.Years: 1994, Diseases: Bubonic Plague, Country: India


Bubonic plague
Photo Credit:Content Providers(s): CDC, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


The 4th palace in the History of Pandemics Is an Indian Plague. Outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague occurred in south-central India in 1994 and from 26 August to 18 October 1994 in western India. The plague is the danger in pandemics' history. 

Five affected states, as well as 56 people, were reported killed, and five affected states and the Union Territory of New Delhi were reported. The cases were from Maharashtra (488 cases), Gujarat (77 cases), Karnataka (46 cases), Uttar Pradesh (10 cases), Madhya Pradesh (4 cases), and New Delhi (68 cases). 

In the first week of August 4, 1994, health officials recorded an unusually large number of domestic rats in the city of Surat, Gujarat. On September 21, 1994, the Deputy Municipal Commissioner of Health (DMCH) for the City of Surat received a report that a patient was most likely dead due to pneumonic plague in pandemic history. 

A DMCH patient in Surat alerted the medical authorities in the area where the patient was killed. Later that day, a concerned caller informed DMCH about the deaths of 10 people in the Ved Road residential area and the hospitalization of 50 critically ill patients. This led to the largest migration of post-independence people to India, leaving about 300,000 people leaving Surat city in 2 days.

5.Years: 1820, Diseases: Cholera, Country: Bangladesh


Vibrio Cholerae
Thomas J. Kirn,  Margaret J. Lafferty, Carola M. P. Sandoe,  Ronald K. Taylor,
 Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


Here many of his ships used to sail. The new disease also began to travel with those ships, and by 1823 the disease had reached Europe. The disease was known as cholera. India also later became known as the 'Homeland of Cholera'. Because the disease is from India. 

It is also called 'Asian cholera', as it is mainly found in Asian countries such as Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, and China. Indonesia's tourists reported more than 1 million deaths on the popular Java Island. 

But along with British naval vessels, cholera reached several countries, including Africa, Spain, Japan, Italy, Germany, and the United States. By 1970, that is, two hundred years after the disease first appeared, cholera killed a total of seven rounds in different areas of the earth and killed millions. 

It was probably the first time the cholera spread. In order to prevent it, the search for a vaccine was started and the vaccine was prepared. But the vaccine was after the disease, not to prevent the disease. 

Cholera is almost ruined today, but not terribly. Cholera also occurs in today's time, but now it can be prevented from spreading due to its frequent medication, but it cannot be stopped.

6.Years: 1918, Diseases: Spanish flu, Country: The whole world


Soldiers from Fort Riley, Kansas
U.S. Army photographer, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

The Spanish flu, as the name suggests, did not originate in Spain, but according to a report by British virologist John Oxford and his team in 1919, the first center of the virus was the United Kingdom's Army Hospital Camp, built-in Taupe, Spain. 

At that time, the country was busy with World War 1, and there were 1 million new arrivals every day in these army champs. Such camps used to be stocked with meat and chicken and pigs to eat. 

And this is the cause of the world's most dangerous pandemic of the Spanish flu. The virus was also infected with sneezing and especially like the coronavirus, so the whole world would be infected and probably the country in which someone died from the disease. 

After taking so many lives and taking the world for 3 years, the influenza virus died because of advances in the Medical and Medical Facilities. Many advances have been made to this day, but the Coronavirus has taken over the entire world. 

This makes us realize that if we want to avoid the coronavirus, the best swimmer with us is to somehow terminate it by becoming a medicine and to prevent it from spreading until it does.

7.Years: - 2009, Disease: - Swine flu, Country: - Mexico (Veracruz)

Seventh number History of Pandemics is artiodactyl flu. The 2009 flu pandemic or swine influenza was associate degree influenza pandemic that lasted from Jan 2009 to August 2010, and therefore the second of the 2 pandemics involving the H1N1 influenza virus (the 1st being the 1918–1920 Spanish flu pandemic), 

First described in April 2009, the virus seemed to be a replacement strain of H1N1, which resulted from a previous triple reassortment of bird, swine, and human flu viruses further combined with a Eurasian pig flu virus, resulting in the term "swine flu". 

It is estimated that 11–21% of the global population at the time or around 700 million 1.4 billion people (out of a total of 6.8 billion) contracted the illness more than the number of people infected by the Spanish flu pandemic, with about 150,000–575,000 fatalities. A follow-up study done in September 2010 showed that the risk of serious illness resulting from the 2009 H1N1 flu was no higher than that of the yearly seasonal flu. 

Unlike most influenza strains, the pandemic H1N1/09 virus does not cause asymmetric infections in adults over 60 years of age; This was an unusual feature of the H1N1 epidemic. Analysis of the genetic variation of the virus in different case samples indicates that the virus went into humans in 2008, probably after June, and probably not after the end of November, around September 2008. 

A 5-year-old boy was investigated shortly after March 9 in a 5-year-old boy in La Gloria, Mexico, in the rural city of Veracruz. In late April, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared its first "international concern public health crisis," or PHEIC, and in June, the WHO and US CDC stopped counting cases and the epidemic broke out.

8.Years: - 2015, Disease:- Indian Swine flu, Country: - India

The 8th number History of Pandemics is Indian Swine flu..2015 Indian swine flu outbreak refers to a plague of the H1/N1 virus in India, for the duration of early 2015. The states of Gujarat and Rajasthan had been the worst affected.

India had reported 937 cases and 218 deaths from swine flu in the year 2014. By mid-February 2015, the reported cases and deaths in 2015 had surpassed the previous numbers. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases crossed 33,000 marks with the death of more than 2,000 people. 

The H1N1 virus outbreak had formerly befell in India all through the 2009 flu pandemic. The virus killed 981 human beings in 2009 and 1,763 in 2010. The mortality decreased in 2011 to 75. It claimed 405 lives in 2012 and 699 lives in 2013. In 2014, a total of 218 people died from the H1N1 flu, India recorded 837 laboratory-confirmed cases in the year. 

Every year, there was a rise in a number of cases and deaths during winter as temperature affects the virus. During 2014–15 winters, there was a spurt in cases at the end of 2014. In 2015, the outbreak became widespread throughout India. On 12 February 2015, Rajasthan declared an epidemic.

9.Years: - 2019, Disease: - Corona virus, Country: - China and all world

COVID 19

Now the 9th and the last but not a list History of Pandemics is present days deadliest pandemic is the COVID 19. The Coronavirus, also known as SARS COV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), and the disease caused by it are called coronavirus disease Covid-19. 

The disease began in the first week of December 2019 from Wuhan Sea Food Market, South China. All kinds of meat and animal products were sold in these markets, such as dogs. Pigs, snakes, bats, and chickens. This market is thought to be the starting point for the coronavirus.

Regarding the Coronavirus, Scientific says that the virus is found in animals and that if all the animal products are kept together in the market, the virus gets a chance that it will get into humans and that happened in the month of December 2019.

The expert believes that the virus is infected with bats and first infected any one human and then started spreading to another human, thus becoming a chain. From the first week of December to the first week of January, there was shouting in China. Sea Food Market closed on January 1, 2020. 

Scientists from China discovered the genetic core of the virus that is inside the virus and found out that it originated from the bats. That means the virus came from the bats, but scientists from the JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY did another research that, after a few days, found out that the cobra was wriggling the snake, meaning that the cobra sold by a marketer from China. This makes some people think that it came from Multiple Animals because they were selling bats and snakes as well as other animals in the market.

After the virus spread to China, one after another, the symptoms of the virus began to appear, followed by a doctor from China. After inspection of the virus, Dr. Li found out that this is a new virus that has never been seen in humans before and does not know anything about its properties. So he was warned in his doctors' group and asked to be serialized as he goes ahead and spreads it. As the talk spread, Dr. Li was arrested by the government. 

Because the government felt that Dr. Li lied to people by lying, so he was arrested for spreading rumors. The rumor spread and what happened just days after Dr. Li was arrested was to be noted in the pages of history. Dr. Prior to Lee's removal, there were very few cases of Coronavirus, but after being extracted, thousands of people started to become infected in Puran Wuhan, and Dr. Li, who was the first Corona informant, had been infected and on 7 February 2020, he died.

Now think that if the government believed in Dr. Li's words, today the virus would have been under control and this kind of virus spread out of China and spread to other countries. On March 11, 2020, WHO triggered a global pandemic.

Covid-19 Cases:

Covid-19 Worldwide Cases

LocationCasesDeaths
US7.06M +54,536204K +864
India5.9M +86,05293,379 +1,141
Brazil4.69M +31,911141K +729
Russia1.14M +7,21220,225 +108
Colombia798K +7,49425,103 +179

COVID-19 influences distinct human beings in distinct ways; maximum inflamed human beings will expand moderate to slight contamination and could get better with out hospitalization. 

What are the Symptoms of the Corona Virus? 

The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will improve for mild to moderate symptoms and without the need for special treatment. People under medical conditions and those over the age of 60 are at increased risk of serious illness and death.

Most common symptoms:
  • fever
  • dry cough
  • tiredness
Less common symptoms:
  • aches and pains
  • sore throat
  • diarrhoea
  • conjunctivitis
  • headache
  • loss of taste or smell
  • a rash on the skin, or discoloration of fingers or toes

Seek immediate medical attention if you have serious symptoms. Always call before visiting your doctor or health facility. Seek immediate medical attention if you have serious symptoms. Always call before visiting your doctor or health facility. 

The most important thing is that you do not need to be afraid that if you have a fever, you have coronavirus, dry cough is the corona. If you feel that your condition is very bad then you should go to the hospitals immediately without any hesitation and do a doctor's advice.

Most importantly, if we have all the information we can stay safe and we do not need to worry and do not need to go to the hospital. So first of all, know that our body has two types of infectious diseases. (A) Bacterial Infection (B) Viral Infection

Bacterial Infection:
  • Strep Throat
  • Ear Infections
  • Urinary Tract Infection [UTI] etc.
Viral Infection:
  • Common Cold
  • Influenza
  • Chickenpox
  • HIV
  • Aids
  • Corona Virus etc.

We can cure bacterial infections caused by bacteria because they are cured, but when we talk about the viral infection caused by the virus, it has not been able to detect cure due to the common cold as it is a viral infection. There is no cure then no one can cure whether it is coronavirus or normal cold or dengue. Only treatment can do it. Treatment means that we take its medicine to kill the bacteria that have gone into our body and can be cured 100%, which is called cure.

Treatment is a different thing. Treatment means keeping you in situ so that it can increase your chances of getting out of the virus body. The bacterial disease can be cured by a doctor's antibiotics. Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not kill viruses. One of the things that are different in COVID 19 is that it does not currently have any treatment. Coronavirus is caused by a virus and not by any bacteria. Normal cold - Coronavirus is different from any other virus that occurs because it spreads very quickly to people.

Speaking of defeating this, our bodies remove the virus from the immune system, we cannot do anything outwardly. Whatever it does, our body and immune system do. If our body's immune system is stagnant, it can also remove other viruses like Coronavirus.

One of the questions in your mind is what will happen if the virus disappears inside the body of a human being? Wires are a circular object that contains genetic material. The virus can only multiply itself when it enters the human body. The virus can also be transmitted through an inanimate object such as plastic or metal but can survive for a short time in the outer surface. 

If a virus gets a living host, as soon as it reaches the lungs of a human, you start to multiply yourself. The human body contains epithelial cells in the number of millions.

So the coronavirus is injected through our mouth and nose, attached to a specific receptor in our epithelial cells, injects its genetic material into our cells, and the virus cells multiply and begin to spread. When the cells discover that the virus is spreading, then the cells come to critical condition and the cells kill themselves.

Then the virus reaches the remaining cells and the cells present in the lungs also begin to die. Within a few days, hundreds of millions of cells of the body are infected and more than a million cells begin to multiply.

Now we have to know what happens next. After the death of the cells, there is a Soldier's entry into our body called the immune system. The whole immune system is Strong and Healthy, it kills all the viruses and expels them out of our body. But if the immune system is not Strong, then the virus starts to get infected and the immune system starts to lose its power and they die.

Out of 1000 people who have corona at age 30, the immune system of 998 people fixes them and there are 2 who die. But the percentage of people who die of old age is higher because their immune system is not strong. But this does not mean that we young people have to take the safety precaution. Even if you think your immune system is Strong, this COVID 19 virus is new, until you know all about it, and then take a safety precaution until the most effective treatment of this novel coronary virus goes away.

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